Final stuff.

9. Sum up Lessig’s overall argument.

OOK so obviously there are a lot of different aspects of Lessig’s argument, however I have narrowed it down to this:

  1. The need for a new “hybrid economy.”
  2. The progression of culture relies on remix culture/the remix process.
  3. The war on copyright law must be stopped/ copyright law must be changed before we  lose a whole generation of kids.

Here’s a couple quotes to help kinda sum it up too….

–The present teaches us about the potential in a new “hybrid economy” — one where commercial entities leverage value from sharing economies. That future will benefit both commerce and community. If the lawyers could get out of the way, it could be a future we could celebrate.

–the health, progress, and wealth creation of a culture is fundamentally tied to this participatory remix process.

–“Creative work is a ‘public good’–meaning that (1) once it is shared, anyone can consume it without reducing the amount anyone else has; and (2) it is hard to restrict anyone from consuming it once it is available to all” (289).

–”Throughout this book, I have argued that this decade’s work has convinced me that this war is causing great harm to our society. Not only from losses in innovation. Not only from the stifling of certain kinds of creativity. Not only because it unjustifiably limits constitutionally guaranteed freedoms. But also, and most important, because it is corrupting a whole generation of our kids. We wage war against our children, and our children will become the enemy” (293).

12. What do each of these mean and how do they connect to one, or more, of Lessig’s 5 shifts?

pastedGraphic.pdf  ATTRIBUTION: This license lets others distribute, remix, tweak, and build upon your work, even commercially, as long as they credit you for the original creation. (most free/accommodating license offered)

pastedGraphic_1.pdfATTRIBUTION SHARE/ALIKE: This license lets others remix, tweak, and build upon your work even for commercial purposes, as long as they credit you and license their new creations under the identical terms. (used by wikipedia)

pastedGraphic_2.pdfATTRIBUTION-NO DERIVS: This license allows for redistribution, commercial and non-commercial, as long as it is passed along unchanged and in while, with credit to you.

pastedGraphic_3.pdfATTRIBUTION NON COMMERCIAL: This license lets others remix, tweak, and build upon your work non-commercially, and although their works must also acknowledge you and be non-commercial, they don’t have to license their derivative works on the same terms.

pastedGraphic_4.pdfATTRIBUTION NON COMMERCIAL SHAREALIKE: This license lets others remix, tweak, and build upon your work non-commercially, as long as they credit you and license their new creations under the identical terms.

pastedGraphic_5.pdfATTRIBUTION NON COMMERCIAL NODERIVS: This license is the most restrictive of all six. Only allows others to download your works and share them with others as long as they credit you, but they can’t change them in any way or use them commercially.

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Blog #12 Lessig and RIP

Besides Lessig himself actually being in the film, Rip, and talking about a lot of the things he talks about in his book, there are a few other things that the particular section of reading and the movie had in common.

The film talks a lot about intellectual property and the fact that intellectual property is the property of someones mind. If someone “steals” that intellectual property it is against the law, and if stolen the thief needs to pay thousands and thousands of dollars. This crazy belief is what Lessig thinks is keeping our culture so locked up and unable to fully flourish as it should. “Indeed our intellectual biases about concepts like property lead us almost naturally to believe that the best strategy to produce wealth is to maximize control over the assets we have, including (and most important here) intellectual property assets”(228).

A quote from the movie that really stood out to me was when someone (not really sure who) was saying “are we supposed to say certain things are off limits to make art?” This was powerful because obviously the answer is no, certain things shouldn’t be off limits but that is essentially what has happened with copyright laws. People are being sued for things like putting videos of their baby dancing on the internet. However what Lessig explains to sum up the chapter is technology can be used for good, and obviously we shouldn’t be limited to what we can share with the world, especially if sharing these things can lead to real, honest wealth. “Technology had now given us the chance to tap human effort for extraordinary good. Subtle and insightful entrepreneurs could transform that opportunity into real wealth” (252).

The third connection I made to the movie and the book was Lessig’s thorough discussion of a hybrid economy which combines the sharing and commercial economies into one. In the past this was almost unheard of, however Lessig argues this hybrid economy is the answer to building a more free society. Which brings me to one of the main points of the movie, “To build free societies, you must limit the control of the past.” In this day in age technology is changing culture rapidly, old business models and ways of doing things in the commercial world are needing to change to try to keep up. We are needing new and creative ideas to keep businesses running rather than the same business model that has been used for the past 50 years. That is why limiting the control of the past is very important, and embracing new ways that will eventually make everyone more successful in the long run. If we limit the control of the past (when commercial and sharing have been separated) we can make room for this hybrid economy that can help community and commerce at the same time.

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Blog #11 Sharing vs. Commercial

“There exists not just the commercial economy, which meters access on the simple metric of price, but also a sharing economy, where access to culture is regulated not by price, but by a complex set of social relations.” (147)

A sharing economy to me, is more of a “what goes around comes around” type of exchange, rather than an exchange based on price. It’s when a friend says to another friend, “hey if I give you a ride to school, can you let me borrow your book?” No one has to pay anything, it is just simply a trade, everybody wins unless the person with the book would hate getting a ride, and would rather walk to school. However it does depend on the relationship between the two people, and whether or not each person deserves to be helped out without an actual price.

“As with any economy, the sharing economy is built upon exchange. And as with any exchange that survives over time, it must, on balance, benefit those who remain within our economy” (146).

A commercial economy is what we rely on financially as a culture. It is what drives our markets, and it’s what makes rich people rich, and poor people poor. “The commercial economy is a central part of modern life; it has contributed to human well-being perhaps more than any other institution created by humankind. We are well beyond the point where it makes sense to oppose the flourishing of the market” (121).  The commercial economy is essentially when we trade/exchange things for a price. Which is what we do every day.

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#10: Remix Culture

Alright first of all I apologize for the lateness on this blog, I caught that terrible horrible bug earlier this week and was bedridden for a few days:(

Here’s the remix I picked:

I found this particular one interesting because it happened to made from an infomercial of the “slap chop”, not something that went viral on the web that everyone wanted to make fun of. I’m not sure why someone decided to make a remix out of an informercial but I thought it was a creative idea. DJ Steve Porter essentially just took bits and pieces from the infomercial and added some music and some video, but he did put in all together in a collage sort of way, which Lessig describes as follows. “Remix is collage; it comes from combining elements of RO culture; it succeeds by leveraging the meaning created by the reference to build something new” (Pg77).

I think DJ Porter did make something new out of an infomercial which isn’t something people just do for fun every day. However he did keep a big amount of the original content in the remix. “There meaning comes not from the content of what they say; it comes from the reference, which is expressible only if it is the original content that gets used” (Pg74).

I think remixing in this way is an important form of expression but it may not be the only thing driving our culture as Lessig describes it. Remixing videos and songs may be becoming more and more popular but there are a lot of other aspects that make a culture. When questioning whether or not the remix is original or not, is almost like walking through an art gallery of a bunch of abstract art and asking if it truly is art or not, it seems to be up to the individual.

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Blog 9: Intro to Remix

I think Lessig’s key argument in the introduction of Remix was, if the lawyers of major companies continue to try and wreck what artists or just regular people like Stephanie Lenz are doing, we are going to miss out on a whole lot of creativity in which helps drive culture. Lessig refers to this battle with every day creativity and big shot lawyers as “copyright wars.” He explains that this war isn’t usually going on with really popular musicians, or celebrities, it is going on with people like mothers, art gallery curators, and young musicians.

RW culture=Read/Write culture and RO culture=Read/Only

Lessig describes RW culture as something more a part of the past, and RO culture being what we celebrate today. In RW culture, ‘citizens “read” their culture by listening to it or by reading representations of it (e.g musical scores).” (28) In contrast in RO culture citizens simply consume the culture around them. Instead of reading to obtain culture, society essentially just eats up whatever they may come across. To me it seems RW culture is more individualistic, and RO culture is more based on trends and what is making it’s way around the internet. The reason why these two cultures are important in Lessig’s argument is because “amateur” creativity that can be produced in an RW culture shouldn’t be hindered because of regulation. We shouldn’t have to settle for a more comfortable RO culture, and should be able to allow an RW culture whenever possible.

Lessig uses Sousa as an example because in 1906 he was a critic of copyright law in America, and he was a composer who benefited financially from copyrights on his work. He also not only complained about the piracy of mechanical music but he complained about “the cultural emptiness that mechanical music would create.” (24)


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#8: The end of P.miller

Rhythmic Cinema::

“Whenever you look at an image or listen to a sound, there’s a ruthless logic of selection that you have to go through to simply create a sense of order…..” (79) This is very related to lumping and splitting in Weinberger, and how people put things and images into a certain order automatically, many times without even thinking about it.

“Any shift in the traffic of information can create not only new thoughts, but new ways of thinking.” (79) This doesn’t take too much explanation but basically means anytime there is something new put on the internet, or attention shifts to something new on the internet new ways of thinking emerge.

R. Space::

“We live in a world so utterly infused with digitality that it makes even the slightest action ripple across the collection of databases we call the web.” (89) This relates to the quote above, but I like the imagery in this one, makes me think of a drop of water hitting a pool of water. Once something is dropped into the web it causes a ripple effect across databases.

Errata Erratum::

“The observer always alters the picture, the map always changes the routes traveled.” (93) I just thought this quote was interesting, but i’ll admit I didn’t take it as anything closely related to this class. It’s more about psychology and how everything one looks at is altered a tiny bit by the observer. When someone looks at a picture, or a piece of art, website, etc they perceive it in their own specific way.

Future is here::

“As I sit here and type on my laptop, even the basic format of the words I write still mirrors some of the early developments in graphical user interface-based text still echoes not only in how I write, but how I think about the temporal displacement of the words and ideas I’m thinking about.” (100) I interpreted this as meaning every time we type on our super modern, super smart laptops the basic format of text still relates to the types of text used on our first computers/word processors.

The prostitute::

“Nothing is really so poor and melancholy as art that is interested in itself and not in its subject. The truth is cruel, but it can be loved, and it makes free those who have loved it.” (109) This is a deep one. I translate as meaning there is nothing as sad as art that is discussed itself, but the subject inside the art is not discussed.

SONG: Alright so Kanye West samples a lot but I was kind of annoyed with this one. Mostly because in Kanye’s song he makes the voice in the chorus sound high pitched kinda like Alvin and the chipmunks, and Chakra Khan (the original artist) has a very pretty voice so in a way it’s kind of like making fun of her.

Chakra Khan- Through the fire.——-Kanye West-Through the wire.  Here’s the Chakra Khan song (listen to the chorus mainly)

I relate this to my 3rd quote…about being so infused with digitality, I can see Kanye just listening to/searching for old R&B.. heard Chakra and said “hmm I think i’ll make some hip hop out of this”

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#7: Debourgoing.

Debourgoing makes a lot of different arguments in her piece about hip hop and the LA music scene but the following were what I figured might be most important:

1. “Hip hop by essence is a fertile terrain for transmedia; born from the practice of sampling.”  …..which explains that hip hop is somewhat like a groundwork for storytelling. Hip hop offers history, it tells us about culture, it tells us about politics, etc.

2. “Hip hop today feeds from both an active online and offline presence that contaminate each other…….Hip hop artists are pioneers in the way they have marketed themselves to brands and have used that to be successful.”     This argument explains that hip hop artists are essentially marketers, and become successful on how well they market themselves. They have to market offline and online, but online (twitter, myspace, etc) marketing is just as important as offline marketing if not more.

3. This one ties into the first argument: “Rappers are great storytellers, therefore they already have the gift of word, inherited from a great oral tradition of storytelling its how you build that story that makes it effective on a transmedia level.” The interesting thing about rappers being such storytellers is that hip hop is mostly oral, and many artists don’t write things down. Hip hop “isn’t assigned to a rigid structure.”

I immediately tie in convergence culture from Jenkins/the first half of the class to this article. Especially the part of convergence that explains the flow of content across multiple media platforms, cooperation between multiple media industries, and the migratory behavior of media audiences. Hip hop requires a lot of cooperation between the industries, especially when dealing with sampling, and working with different types of artists. As we saw in the video (blanking on the title) sampling is very controversial. However, sampling and mixing songs is what has become popular nowadays. There is a convergence of rap artists with rock artists, older hip hop with newer hip hop, jazz with hip hop, and the ever popular techno/house with hip hop.

Miller definitely was hard to read, but in attempt to summarize what he was talking about, he definitely was trying to show how important hip hop is to the real world, and how it is much more than just music. The section that stood out to me the most was the multiplex consciousness one, especially this quote: “the twenty-first-century self is so fully immersed in and defined by the data that surrounds it, we are entering an era of multiplex consciousness” (63). Which I interpret as meaning that there is no longer just one consciousness that we rely on, we live in multiple worlds or consciousness. There’s the data-driven online world, the everyday world, the dream world, and you could even say there’s also a music world where we become so immersed in music we can almost zone out from everything else going on and just listen. Which in turn is true for our online world, and everything else. Because of this we live in multiple states of consciousness, and because a lot of what we interact with is data driven, we define ourselves as such…….

however, without getting too deep like Mr. Miller, even though we are entering an era of multiplex consciousness, we obtain these new ideas and additions to each consciousness from the past, and we build upon the past to bring out new creativity, and new identities. Which I think is what Paul Miller is trying to say to us readers.

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Blog #6- Henry Jenkins

The three main points/concepts that Jenkins introduces are media convergence, participatory culture, and collective intelligence.

As Jenkins describes his definition of collective intelligence, it reminds me a lot of the ways Weinberger described “the wisdom of crowds.” Jenkins says, “none of us know everything; each of us knows something; and we can put the pieces together if we pool our resources and combine our skills” (Jenkins 4). To me, the wisdom of crowds is just another way of describing this, and they are essentially the same thing.

The term participatory culture relates a lot to the notion of gatekeepers as was covered in Weinberger as well. As Jenkins explains, “we might now see them as participants who interact with each other according to a new set of rules that none of us fully understands. Not all participants are created equal” (Jenkins 3). As we have discussed in class about gatekeepers, many would normally assume that there are no gatekeepers on the internet, and we can put anything we want on  the internet. However the truth is not everyone has all the power in the world when it comes to posting, commenting, and publishing things. In Jenkins’ perspective he is comparing this notion of power and gatekeepers to consumers and corporations on the internet. In ways this does relate to the discussion of power in Weinberger.

As Jenkins’ introduction does deal more with industries, and consumers of those industries directly involved in the world wide web, a few, if not many of Weinberger’s discussions do relate to different aspects here and there.

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Post #5 Web of Meaning

Songweb <—let me know if that doesn’t work.

When Weinberger states, “The meaning of a particular thing is enabled by the web of implicit meanings we call the world”(170), he is essentially talking about a “web of meaning.”

In other words, objects, songs, poems, etc all have underlying meanings that make it mean what it does to you. Weinberger’s example that he took from German philosopher Martin Heidegger, is the meaning of a hammer. You basically have to imagine as if you had no idea what a hammer was, or what is was used for. You break down all the things that give a hammer meaning.

1. It’s a tool….2. It’s used with nails…3. nails are metal things with a flat top and sharp bottom that hold wood together….4. wood is made from trees…5. Trees grow from the ground…..6. We have to cut down a tree to use its wood….and the list goes on.

Weinberger also explains, “that implicit web of relationships gives the things of our world their meaning” (170).  Which is true, all those “leaves of meaning” that came off of one “branch”, (we can use the hammer example) give it meaning, and give it a purpose. This is true in the digital world as well. In the third order of order, the content and metadata are all digital. Things online have webs of meaning too, just like the hammer does. However it is up to the users to make sure each web of meaning for each thing doesn’t get too out of whack making it hard for the next searcher to find what they are looking for. We build our own webs of meaning by tagging, linking, blogging, tweeting, etc.

“We are building this connected miscellany link by link and tag by tag. Its value is in the implicit relationships that turn it into an infrastructure of meaning” (171).


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Post #4 Ch.5 and web 2.0

In reading Weinberger, and the web squared, and Web 2.0 articles it is obvious that the wonderful world wide web is more complex than some may imagine. It seems as though the smarter the web gets, the easier of a time we have going along with it. In chapter 5 of Weinberger he explains a lot about tagging, and how it is becoming more common for people to tag websites or certain pages on websites so whoever may be doing a similar search can find what they’re looking for easier. It is interesting how people do this because when someone might think they are helping, they could also be throwing off a search completely. Weinberger uses wikipedia as an example. If you type in a search such as say, Redmond. Which is actually a town on the westside but there are also other Redmonds in the world that are tagged, maybe even Microsoft or other well known companies may be tagged there. This makes the web even more miscellaneous than ever. The crazy thing is even with all the tagging going on it is still fairly simple to find what you’re looking for. All three articles have mentioned how influential us users are to the web, which is very true. We are the drivers of the web, and with all the searching and tagging we do we actually just make the web smarter and smarter. Referring back to the “How Google Works” video, the more miscellaneous the web gets, the harder those google spiders work, and give us what we need to find, EVEN with some ads to go along with  it.

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